The Basics

Things you need to know

Personal Pronouns

Their Omission

When you are at the podium to present your clause/resolution/speech, the use of personal pronouns such as ‘I’ and ‘you’ are not permitted. Instead the termthe delegate of’ is used. Always remember to refer to yourself as the third person! 
‘We’ is used when referring to you and your allies.


Direct talk

During debate, ‘direct dialogue’ is discouraged between delegates, i.e. delegates are not allowed to speak directly with each other. Instead, delegates are encouraged to pass notes on special paper provided, through the Admins. Or, the delegates must communicate through the Chair presiding over the debate. This is to ensure that respect is given to the speaker at the podium.

Dress Code

What you need to wear

MUN aims to simulate the United Nations. Therefore it follows a strict dress code.

For boys, a full suit complete with a tie, along with a pair of formal shoes is required. 

For girls, they can either wear a formal dress or a skirt ( both must be knee- length) or formal pants with a blazer, as well as a formal pair of shoes.

It is important to note that jeans, T-Shirts and sneakers are not acceptable clothing options. 

It is mandatory for delegates to put on their blazer when speaking at the podium. 


Terms Used in Debate

Roll Call

When the debate commences, the chairs will do a ‘roll call’. This is to ensure all delegates are present. It’s easy; raise your placard and say ‘present’.

Points of Information

Points of Information essentially means questions. After a speaker has made their speech presenting their clause, amendment etc., the Chair will confirm with the speaker, “Is the delegate open to any points of information?”. If the speaker answers ‘Yes’, then delegates from the audience can ask a question. 
The speaker can choose how many Points of Information they wish to receive. If the speaker doesn’t mind the number, the phrase is “any and all”, i.e. any and all points of information.


When a clause is presented, amendments can be made. Should you require to make changes to a clause, you may simply submit it on an amendment paper to the chairs. The amendment will then be debated and voted on.

However, if there is a small mistake such as a spelling mistake or a wrong word is used, a delegate can simply submit a ‘friendly amendment’ to the main submitter. If the main submitter accepts it, then it automatically becomes a part of the clause without any debate.

Amendment to the 2nd Degree

An amendment to the second degree means you want to present an amendment to the amendment being presented.

Yielding the Floor

Once all the points of information have been answered, the delegate presenting the clause or amendment will be asked by the chairs, “Does the delegate yield the floor back to the chair?” You may respond, “The floor is yielded” or “so yielded”.

If you wish to yield the floor to one of your allies, the phrase is “I wish to yield to the delegate of...” This will allow you to increase the strength of your argument and make your case stronger 

The House

The House means the committee. You may use this term when addressing the delegates and is used in speeches being delivered in favor or against clauses or amendments. For example: “Therefore the delegate of Uganda strongly urges the House to vote in favor of this clause.”

Main Submitter

The Main Submitter is the person who submits a clause or an amendment- the person in charge of the clause or amendment. A co-submitter is someone who helps write the clause. 

Closing Remarks

This term is commonly used by chairs. Closing remarks means conclusion. If the chairs feel a delegate’s speech is taking too long, they may say, “Delegate please come to your closing remarks.”


This is quite easy. When the clause or amendment has been debated, the chair will say, “We will now be moving into voting procedures.” It’s divided into three; In favor, against and abstaining. Abstaining is when you’re neutral and the clause or amendment is not important to you. To vote, just raise your placard. Remember to vote based on your country’s policy, not what you think.


Different Motions

A motion is when you want to enact something

Point of Information

You may ask questions to the presenter of the clause or amendment.

Motion to Follow Up

If you feel the presenter has not answered your point of information sufficiently, you can ask the chair for a motion to follow up and ask your question again. This takes place at the Chairs’ discretion.

Rephrase Point of Information

If the speaker does not understand the point of information, he/she must tell the chair that the delegate needs to rephrase his/her point of information. As mentioned before, the speaker cannot ask the delegate to rephrase the question as this is considered direct dialogue.

Motion to Introduce an Amendment

Once a clause has been presented, delegates are allowed to introduce amendments. All you have to say from your seat is, “Motion to introduce an amendment.”

Point of Order

This is a question to the chair. If you feel that the presenter is doing something wrong, you can stand up and ask, “Point of Order.” An example would be, “Point of Order. Aren’t we not allowed to specify the amount of money that can be payed?”

Motion to Move into Voting Procedures

If a delegate feels that no one wants to debate the clause or amendment anymore as the arguments become repetitive, they can stand up and say, “Motion to move into voting procedures.” If no one objects, voting begins. If there is an objection, then it won’t be possible.

Motion to Move into Previous Question

This means you want to move into the next step. For example, if the chairs want a speech in favor of the clause or amendment, but no one raises a placard, you can stand up and say, “Motion to move into previous question.” If there are no objections, you move into the next step (in this scenario, you would move into speeches against). If there is an objection, then it is not possible.

Motion to Split the House

If there are too many abstentions, a delegate can say, “Motion to Split the House.” If the chair agrees, then it takes place. When splitting the house, abstentions are not allowed. The chair will ask each delegate whether they are for or against. So, you have to pick a side.


Pre-Ambulatory Clauses

To be used in a Resolution

Noting with deep concern that over 70 per cent of prisoners in Haiti have not been convicted...

Bearing in mind that the Venezuela Observatory of Prisons reported the death of 6,663 prisoners...

Fully aware that the lack of access to education...

Recalling the revised United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s...

Acknowledges that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is still in use...

Affirming that prison overcrowding is sometimes caused...

Welcoming governmental projects such as...


Operative Clause Phrases

To be used in a Resolution

Endorses a decrease in dependence on nuclear material...

Calls for the development of more stringent physical security systems...

Emphasizes the need for the enforcement of stricter control...

Encouraging the safe management...

Further deplores countries which have not ratified...

Requests a reduction of...

Supports informing the general populace...


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